br study was an ecologic
study was an ecologic study. Numerous studies have attempted to estimate trends in the underlying inci-dence of breast cancer in the U.S., and most conclude that there has been a steady increasing trend in the past
few decades because of changes in the distribution of risk factors33,34 in the U.S.35,42−44 Such temporal trends may threaten the conclusion of this study if a higher incidence in invasive breast cancer was found after the 2009 screening guideline. However, no changes were found in stage distribution before and after the guide-line changes, and a lower APC was found after the guideline changes in distant breast cancer among both women aged 40−49 and 50−74 years.
Under the context of the 2009 screening guideline changes for breast cancer, this study found no substan-tial change of incidence rate by stage or stage distribu-tion in 2011−2014 compared to 2006−2009. Active
surveillance of breast cancer among the female popula-tion in the U.S. is still needed to assure no long-term adverse effects of a longer screening interval or late screening Rocaglamide age.
Part of the results was presented at the 145th American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, November 4−8, 2017. Dr. Guo is currently supported by the National Cancer Institute of NIH under Award Number K07CA222343 and was supported by a research career development award (K12HD052023: Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health Program-BIRCWH; Berenson, principal investigator) from the Office of Research on Women’s Health and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Develop-ment at NIH when the study was initially performed. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessar-ily represent the official views of NIH.
The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manu-script, and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Fangjian Guo was responsible for study planning, statistical analysis, drafting and revising the manuscript, full access to data, and responsibility for overall content of manuscript. Yong-fang Kuo was responsible for data interpretation and revision of the manuscript. Abbey B. Berenson was responsible for study planning, data interpretation, and drafting and revising the manuscript.
No financial disclosures were reported by the authors of this paper.
2. American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2015−2016. www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/docu-ment/acspc-046381.pdf. r> 7. Harper S, Lynch J, Meersman SC, Breen N, Davis WW, Reichman MC. Trends in area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities in
9. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2014. www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/professio-nals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/ cpsguide.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2016. 10. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: U.S.
21. NPCR and SEER incidence: USCS public use databases. www.cdc.gov/ cancer/npcr/public-use/index.htm. Accessed October 15, 2017. 22. NAACCR Race and Ethnicity Work Group. NAACCR Guideline for Enhancing Hispanic/Latino Identification: Revised NAACCR Hispanic/Latino Identification Algorithm [NHIA v2.2.1]. Spring-
field, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Regis-tries, 2011.
24. Kim HJ, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Midthune DN. Permutation tests for join-point regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med. 2000;19
29. American College of Obstetricians-Gynecologists. Practice bulletin no. 122: Breast cancer screening. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(2 pt 1):
34. Sauer AG, Siegel RL, Jemal A, Fedewa SA. Updated review of preva-lence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the
40. Allgood KL, Rauscher GH, Whitman S, Vasquez-Jones G, Shah AM. Validating self-reported mammography use in vulnerable communities:
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Breast cancer invasion and progression by MMP-9 through Ets-1 transcription factor
Sheeraz Un Nazira,b, Ramesh Kumarb, Ankita Singha, Asiya Khanc, Pranay Tanwarc, Richa Tripathid, Ravi Mehrotrad, Showket Hussaina,
a Division of Molecular Oncology and Cellular & Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, Noida, India